Anatomy & Physiology

There are several muscles on the inside and one paired muscle on the outside of the larynx which work together in order to position the individual components of the larynx during speech, breathing and swallowing. 

Benign Vocal Cord Lesions

These lesions are commonly seen along the midportion of the membranous vocal cord. These lesions typically develop due to phonotrauma along the free edge of the vocal fold. 


It may occur as a result of intubation, laryngopharyngeal reflux or due to significant vocal abuse, constant throat clearing or chronic cough.

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Reike's Edema

Some people refer to this as polypoid corditis or chronic hypertrophic laryngitis. It is commonly seen in women with a history of smoking while reflux also plays a role. 

Vocal Cord Microsugery

Being able to speak and express yourself is part of how we communicate. Losing your voice can have a significant impact on patient's personal and professional life. 

Spasmodic Dysphonia

It is characterized by involuntary spasms or movements in the muscles of the larynx, which causes the voice to break, and have a tight, strained, or strangled sound.

Spasmodic Dysphonia

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic viral disease, caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). 

Vocal Cord Paralysis

A single sided (unilateral) vocal cord weakness is much more common than one that occurs on both sides (bilateral). The vocal cords no longer come together when trying to speak or swallow leaving a gap.


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